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[194] The Paris region's manufacturing decline is quickly being replaced by eco-industries: these employ about 100,000 workers. [165] It declined again in 2018. The council is elected using closed list proportional representation in a two-round system. The historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site, and popular landmarks in the city centre included the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris on the Île de la Cité, now closed for renovation after the 15 April 2019 fire. Sculptors such as Girardon, Coysevox and Coustou acquired reputations as the finest artists in the royal court in 17th-century France. [238] One of the most popular of all French writers, Jules Verne, worked at the Theatre Lyrique and the Paris stock exchange, while he did research for his stories at the National Library. [211] According to the Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau, 393,008 workers in Greater Paris, or 12.4% of the total workforce, are engaged in tourism-related sectors such as hotels, catering, transport and leisure. [56], During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), Paris was besieged by the Prussian Army. [14] It was ranked as the second most visited travel destination in the world in 2019, after Bangkok and just ahead of London. It was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970, following the student demonstrations in 1968. [199] Paris' department store district in the 1st, 6th, 8th and 9th arrondissements employ ten percent of mostly female Paris workers, with 100,000 of these registered in the retail trade. The top ten French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 for 2018 all have their headquarters in the Paris Region; six in the central business district of the City of Paris; and four close to the city in the Hauts-de-Seine Department, three in La Défense and one in Boulogne-Billancourt. The Bercy Arena also hosted the 2017 IIHF World Ice Hockey Championship, together with Cologne, Germany. It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre. [259] On 2 February 2000, Philippe Binant realised the first digital cinema projection in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris. [335], Since 9 April 1956, Paris is exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:[336][337], Paris has agreements of friendship and co-operation with:[336], This article is about the capital of France. [256] Many of Paris' concert/dance halls were transformed into cinemas when the media became popular beginning in the 1930s. [117] This ensures that the winning party or coalition always wins a majority of the seats, even if they don't win an absolute majority of the vote. [244][245] Among the Impressionist composers who created new works for piano, orchestra, opera, chamber music and other musical forms, stand in particular, Claude Debussy (Suite bergamasque, and its well-known third movement, Clair de lune, La Mer, Pelléas et Mélisande), Erik Satie (Gymnopédies, "Je te veux", Gnossiennes, Parade) and Maurice Ravel (Miroirs, Boléro, La valse, L'heure espagnole). The river's mouth on the English Channel (La Manche) is about 233 mi (375 km) downstream from the city. Noted as the world's largest startup facility. [162], Paris is the fourth largest municipality in the European Union, following Berlin, Madrid and Rome. [54], The population of Paris had dropped by 100,000 during the Revolution, but between 1799 and 1815, it surged with 160,000 new residents, reaching 660,000. In the 1970s, 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found in Paris, almost all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements. [178][179] In 2012 and 2013, it was estimated that there were almost 500,000 Muslims in the City of Paris, 1.5 million Muslims in the Île-de-France region, and 4 to 5 million Muslims in France. The city's population loss came to a temporary halt at the beginning of the 21st century; the population increased from 2,125,246 in 1999 to 2,240,621 in 2012, before declining again slightly in 2017. Weekly Parkruns take place in the Bois de Boulogne and the Parc Montsouris [318][319]. Contemporary architecture includes the Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac by Jean Nouvel (2006), the contemporary art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation by Frank Gehry (2014)[144] and the new Tribunal de grande instance de Paris by Renzo Piano (2018). The name 'Paris' is derived from its early inhabitants, the Gallic Parisii tribe. [312] Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden (created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace and redone by André Le Nôtre between 1664 and 1672)[313] and the Luxembourg Garden, for the Luxembourg Palace, built for Marie de' Medici in 1612, which today houses the Senate. [102] Each year, however, there are a few days when the temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F). Between the wars it was the home of many important expatriate writers, including Ernest Hemingway, Samuel Beckett, and, in the 1970s, Milan Kundera. [195], In 2018, Paris was the most expensive city in the world with Singapore and Hong Kong. [25] The Parisii traded with many river towns (some as far away as the Iberian Peninsula) and minted their own coins for that purpose. The first railway line to Paris opened in 1837, beginning a new period of massive migration from the provinces to the city. They counted 3,641 homeless persons in Paris, of whom twelve percent were women. Among these, 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences, 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences, and the remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent in 2006). Paris' urbanism laws have been under strict control since the early 17th century,[142] particularly where street-front alignment, building height and building distribution is concerned. [316] Since 1977, the city has created 166 new parks, most notably the Parc de la Villette (1987), Parc André Citroën (1992), Parc de Bercy (1997) and Parc Clichy-Batignolles (2007). [130], France's highest courts are located in Paris. [217] In the Paris region, Disneyland Paris, in Marne-la-Vallée, 32 kilometres (20 miles) east of the centre of Paris, received 9.66 million visitors in 2017. Fortification of the Île de la Cité failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris (885–86), for which the then Count of Paris (comte de Paris), Odo of France, was elected king of West Francia. In modernising its infrastructure through the centuries, Paris has preserved even its earliest history in its street map. The Golden Age of the School of Paris ended between the two world wars. [164] The principal reasons were a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between 1962 and 1975. Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey, based in September 2016 data, retrieved July 2017. [28], By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would later become Paris in French. and partly to the possible loss of housing in the city due to short-term rentals for tourism. His successor, Napoleon III, and the newly appointed prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, launched a gigantic public works project to build wide new boulevards, a new opera house, a central market, new aqueducts, sewers, and parks, including the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. During the Roman era, the city's main cemetery was located to the outskirts of the left bank settlement, but this changed with the rise of Catholic Christianity, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes. No, Not At All – Here's Why", "Hanoi strengthens ties with Ile-de-France", "Les contours d'une population susceptible d'être musulmane d'après la filiation", Musée de Cluny – Musée national du Moyen Âge, Institutional seats of the European Union, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paris&oldid=988089567, Populated places established in the 3rd century BC, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from June 2019, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 2: Weather Atlas (percent sunshine and UV Index), This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 00:26. Most of this is due to companies relocating outside the Paris region. On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalides, acquiring thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastille, a symbol of royal authority. The Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of the Paris-Sorbonne University is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine. [320][321] The process of moving bones from the Cimetière des Innocents to the catacombs took place between 1786 and 1814;[322] part of the network of tunnels and remains can be visited today on the official tour of the catacombs. In the late 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. The Hôtel Ritz on Place Vendôme opened in 1898, followed by the Hôtel Crillon in an 18th-century building on the Place de la Concorde in 1909; the Hotel Bristol on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in 1925; and the Hotel George V in 1928. The Sorbonne Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris. As of 2012[update], around 50% of electricity generated in the Île-de-France comes from cogeneration energy plants located near the outer limits of the region; other energy sources include the Nogent Nuclear Power Plant (35%), trash incineration (9% – with cogeneration plants, these provide the city in heat as well), methane gas (5%), hydraulics (1%), solar power (0.1%) and a negligible amount of wind power (0.034 GWh). Paris is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub. [223] Poster art also became an important art form in Paris in the late nineteenth century, through the work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jules Chéret, Eugène Grasset, Adolphe Willette, Pierre Bonnard, Georges de Feure, Henri-Gabriel Ibels, Paul Gavarni and Alphonse Mucha.[223]. [331] Another news agency is France Diplomatie, owned and operated by the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, and pertains solely to diplomatic news and occurrences. Paris is the capital of France and its most populous city. The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of the grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside the public university structure.

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