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Protecting Groups Hydroxyl Protecting Groups 21 Properties: Stable to acid and mild base Not compatible with strong nucleophiles such as organometallic reagents ROH ROAc Esters 2. Protecting Groups for Ketones and Aldehydes Formation: Stability: Cleavage: Stable to base Acetals are generally removed with H 3O+. Cleavage rates of1,3-dioxaneshavebeenstudied(ChemRev1967,67, 427) and are: Adv./Disadv. 26. Protecting Groups for Aldehydes & Ketones (Acetal and Ketal Protecting Groups) Synthetic Applications of the Acetal Protecting Group 20 Because of resonance stabilization, the carbonyl of the a,b-unsaturated ketone is less electrophilic and therefore less reactive to nucleophiles compared to an isolated ketone. The protective group is temporarily attached to decrease reactivity so that the protected functional group does not react under synthetic conditions to which the molecule is subjected in one or more subsequent steps. Acetates (Ac): Formation: Ac 2O, pyridine Acetyl chloride, pyridine Cleavage: K 2CO 3, MeOH, reflux KCN, EtOH, reflux NH 3, MeOH LiOH, THF, H 2 Enzyme hydrolysis (Lipase) 17.8: Acetals as Protecting Groups Acetals as Protecting Groups. Contributors. Protecting group. A protective group (also referred to as "protecting group") is a reversably formed derivative of an existing functional group in a molecule. Acetal protection of a ketone with ethylene glycol during reduction of an ester, vs. reduction to a diol when unprotected. Protecting Groups for Alcohols- Ether silyl protection • tert-Butyldimethylsilyl ether (TBS, TBDMS) • Silyl groups are typically deprotected with a source of fluoride ion. A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction. Compound 1.4.1.4A illustrates several important points in Protection / Deprotection protocol. ZrCl 4 was an efficient catalyst for the deprotection of 1,3-dioxalanes, bis-TBDMS ethers, and diacetate functional groups in excellent yields. :Acetalsaregenerallyeasilypreparedandremoved.Itisof notethatα,ß-unsaturatedcarbonylsformacetalsmuch The Si–F bond strength is about 30 kcal/mol stronger than the Si–O bond. ZrCl 4 also promoted diol protection as the acetonide in very good yields and acted as a transesterification catalyst for a range of esters. Protecting Groups for Alcohols- Acetal protection (alcohol to acetal) 25.

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